Proteomics technologies are used for early detection and diagnosis of cancers for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Identification of biomarker and also the study of protein expression of the cancer are studied through proteomics platforms. These studies have led to the development of discovering new drugs and targeted therapeutics towards the tumor cells. Detection, prognosis, diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer is now possible with the advancements in the field of proteomics along with the use of mass spectrometry. The discovery of the protein patterns has enabled researchers to distinguish the disease and disease free-state associated with breast cancer has been uncovered with the development of proteomics technologies. This discovery leads to personalized therapy for the patients. Proteins expressed or found in the serum, plasma and the tumor cells using the novel methodologies provide a better view of the heterogeneity of the cancers.
Rapidly progressing proteomics techniques have been widely adopted in most areas of biology and medicine. In neurology and neuroscience, many applications of proteomics have involved neurotoxicology and neurometabolism, as well as in the determination of specific proteomic aspects of individual brain areas and body fluids in neurodegeneration. Investigation of brain protein groups in neurodegeneration, such as enzymes, cytoskeleton proteins, chaperones, synaptosomal proteins and antioxidant proteins, is in progress as phenotype related proteomics. The concomitant detection of several hundred proteins on a gel provides sufficiently comprehensive data to determine a pathophysiological protein network and its peripheral representatives. The rapid spread of proteomics technology, which principally consists of twodimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with in-gel protein digestion of protein spots and identification by massspectrometry, has provided an explosive amount of results. An additional advantage is that hitherto unknown proteins have been identified as brain proteins. The current proteomics methods, however, have shortcomings and disadvantages. We would emphasize the failure to separate hydrophobic proteins as a major problem. So far, we have been unable to analyze the vast majority of these proteins in gels on 2-DE. There are several other analytical problems which also need to be overcome, and once solved, will allow for a more comprehensive analysis of the individual disease process. Here, we have reviewed the recent progress in proteomics research on neurodegeneration, with reference to its technological utility and problems in clinical application.
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#Protein digestion in #mass spectrometry (MS)-based bottom-up proteomics targets mainly lysine and arginine residues, yielding primarily 0.6–3 kDa peptides for the proteomes of organisms of all major kingdoms. Recent advances in MS technology enable analysis of complex mixtures of increasingly longer (>3 kDa) peptides in a high-throughput manner supporting the development of a middle-down proteomics (MDP) approach. Generating longer peptides is a paramount step in launching an MDP pipeline, but the quest for the selection of a cleaving agent that would provide the desired 3–15 kDa peptides remains open
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Proteomics in Cancer Research covers both the basic principles of proteomics along with detailed presentations of new and emerging technology that represent promising breakthroughs in cancer prevention and treatment.
The topics covered include:
- Basic concepts, including setting up a proteomics laboratory, #mass spectrometry, protein separations, protein array technologies, and #informatics tools
- Application of emerging technologies to proteomic analysis of cancer cells and #tissues, including discussion of critical issues such as characteristics of cancer cell proteomes and protein-protein interactions
- Application of proteomics approaches in clinical cancer research and a forecast of future research and applications
- In most cases, applications of methods in basic and translational cancer research that are discussed in the text represent the first uses of these proteomics approaches to study any disease.
- Critical issues that readers in cancer research need to understand are covered in detail, including:
- Advantages and limitations of different technologies
- New approaches to the molecular classification of tumors
- Discovery of new bio markers and imaging targets and development of new proteomic platforms for profiling and screening
The unique proteomic features that characterize cancers offer new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Despite intense interest, however, proteomics is just beginning to become a part of the cancer research mainstream, as relatively few cancer researchers have training in proteomics methods and approaches. This book, therefore, is both a timely and an essential guide that will help readers understand key concepts of proteomics and use its methods to search for ways to both cure and prevent cancer.
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